Generic Language Group


Number of Speakers

* According to the All-Russian population census 2002


Level of endangerment (UNESCO)

Present Location


Tundra Nenets Forest Nenets (Yurak) 31,311* endangered Nenets, Yamal Nenets and Taimyr Autonomous Districts in north-western Russia and western Siberia (Russia)
Forest Nenets seriously endangered Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District (Western Siberia, Russia)
Enets (Yenisei Samoyed) 119* nearly extinct Northern Siberia in the Taimyr District along the lower reaches of the Ob River (Russia)
Nganasan (Tavgi) 505* seriously endangered Taimyr Peninsula (Siberia, Russia)
Selkup (Ostyak Samoyed) 1,641* seriously endangered Western Siberia between the Ob and Yenisey Rivers (Russia)
Kamass extinct since 1989   near Sayan mountains, on the rivers Kan and Man (Russia)
Ugrian Khanty (Ostyak) 13,568* endangered Khanty-Mansi and Yamal Nenets Autonomous District, Tomsk oblast' (Western Siberia, Russia)
Mansi (Vogul) 2,746* seriously endangered Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District, Yekaterinburg oblast' (Western Siberia, Russia)
Hungarian 14,500,000 not endangered Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, the Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia
Permian-Finnic Komi (Zyryan) 217,316* endangered Republic of Komi and neighbouring regions
Permian Komi 94,328* endangered Komi-Permyak Autonomous District (Russia)
Udmurt (Votyak) 463,837* endangered Udmurt Republic and neighbouring regions (Russia)

Erzya (Mordvin),

Moksha (Mordvin)

614,260* endangered Mordovian Republic, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Tatarstan, Tshuvash Republic, Nizhni Novgorod, Penza, Samara and Orenburg oblast's (Russia)
Meadow Mari (Cheremis) 451,033* endangered Republic of Mari El, neighbouring areas, Republic of Bashkortostan, Jekaterinburg and Perm oblast' (Russia)
Hill Mari (Cheremis) 36,822* endangered Republic of Mari El
Lapp Ter Sami, Kildin Sami 787* seriously endangered Eastern and Central region of Kola Peninsula (Russia)
Skolt Sami 500 seriously endangered Sevettijärvi (Finland), very few Eastern region of Kola Peninsula (Russia)
Inari Sami 400 seriously endangered Inari (Finland)
Northern Sami 30,000 endangered Northern regions of Norway, Finland and Sweden
Lule Sami 2,000 seriously endangered Northern regions of Sweden and Norway
Southern Sami 500 seriously endangered Central regions of Sweden and Norway
Baltic-Finnic Livonian very few nearly extinct Courland, Latvia
Estonian 1,000,000 not endangered Estonia
Votian 60 nearly extinct Coastal area west of St. Petersburg (Russia)
Ingrian 362* seriously endangered St. Petersburg and environs (Russia)
Vepsian 5,753* seriously endangered Republic of Karelia, Leningrad and Vologda oblast' (Russia)
Karelian Proper 52,880* endangered Repubic of Karelia, Leningrad and Tver oblast' (Russia)
Livvi (Aunus Karelian~Olonetsian) endangered Repubic of Karelia, Leningrad and Tver oblast' (Russia)
Lude (may be a dialect of Karelian) seriously endangered Repubic of Karelia (Russia)
Finnish 5,500,000 not endangered Finland, Norway, Sweden, St. Petersburg and environs, Republic of Karelia (Russia)

Percentage of mother-tongue speakers among uralic peoples in Soviet Union 1959-1989. Chart ( 53 Kb)

Europe's oldest language? by Kalevi Wiik

Some Finno-Ugrian links